There is no all-embracing model of the coaching process and practice in professional business and executive coaching. A coaching model for business in 2011 requires an in-built flexibility and adaptability so that the coaching program can be tailored to fit both coachee and client needs.
Today, a coaching model must encapsulate personal development, beliefs, values, attitudes, emotions, motivation levels, and adult and social learning, as well as personal and organisational dynamics and defences. Instead, every coaching intervention requires the use of a suitable coaching model corresponding to its needs and issues.
Firstly, coaching models need to address how individual factors such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, prior experience and personality influence behavioural choices.
Arlene Quinn uses a range of coaching models that combine:
- Behavioural Change: Current research has concluded that the most effective coaching programs are based upon approaches employing behavioural change models (from the behavioural sciences – which use proven constructs rather than theoretical constructs)
- Learning Acquisition: Any skill development requires a model for sustainable learning. For any sustainable learning to occur it must be based around a validated behavioural-based scientific coaching model and use of associated accelerated behavioural change techniques
Four Coaching Models most commonly used by professional coaches:
Model: Stages of change/trans theoretical model
Change Factors addressed: Readiness to change or attempt to change behaviour varies among individuals and within an individual over time. Relapse is a common occurrence and part of the normal process of change.
Model: Social cognitive theory/social learning theory
Change Factors addressed: Behaviour is explained by dynamic interaction among personal factors, environmental influences, and behaviour.
Model: Theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behaviour
Change Factors addressed: People are rational beings whose intention to perform a behaviour strongly relates to its actual performance through beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control.
Model: Solution focused theory
Change Factors addressed: Assumes that the client has the answers within himself/herself. Recognising the critical role of trust and commitment in the partnership change is promoted by constructing solutions.
When selecting the appropriate coaching model to use, professional coaches need to identify two central component platforms.
The key to the success of this professional approach (typically employed by professional coaches and coaching program managers) is the coach’s training in the use of a range of behavioural-based coaching models and techniques. Based on an assessment of the client’s needs the coach is able to select the appropriate methodology and skill sets to suit.
In order to obtain a successful outcome for a specific coaching intervention, it is critical to have a range of proven models from which to choose.
Extract from Dr Skiffington